Motherboard Installation

How to Install a Motherboard

In this page we will see how to install a motherboard into an ATX full tower-computer case. The procedure is the same for every PC case and for every motherboard form factor. Although it is very easy and straightforward you need to take some precautions to avoid damaging the motherboard. We will see all these in a while.

In this example we will see just how to install a motherboard. In real world scenarios you may have to install the CPU in the motherboard first before installing it in the pc case. Especially in case that you want to install a different cooler than the stock, you may need to install a back plate in the back side of the CPU socket. So check this first before installing a motherboard to the pc case.
 
Precautions
A motherboard is a big card containing many circuits and electrical elements such as capacitors, resistors etc. Any electronic equipment is vulnerable to electrical discharges. Before touching the motherboard, be sure that you don’t have any static electricity on you. Touch an earthed metallic object before handling the motherboard.
 
Avoid touching the pins on the back side of the motherboard for the same reason as above. Think that every time that you touch the motherboard’s metallic components you create a short. Static electricity can pass through the short and damage the motherboard’s elements.
 
Leave the motherboard on the bag that was initially bundled. This bag is anti-static so there is no risk for electricity to reach it.
 
OK as we assume that you understand how important is to avoid static electricity discharges to your motherboard. Let’s proceed to the interesting part and see how to install a motherboard.
 
Installing a Motherboard

 






 This is the PC case that we are going to install our motherboard.
 



Remove the side panel of the computer case and check inside. As you can see there are many holes on the inside metallic “wall” of the case. You guessed well; our motherboard is going to be installed at this place.
 



Let’s have a closer look. We can see a lot more holes that our motherboard has. This is because the pc case supports other form factors as well than the standard ATX. So according to your motherboard form factor, you just need to screw the motherboard stands to the correct holes.



Motherboard stands? You can see them in the following picture.




 These are screws that come with your pc case and must be installed in the correct places. As you can see they are male/female screws. The male side is going to the pc case and the female side is used for securing the motherboard on the stands using simple screws.


 Screw the stands to the correct holes with your thumbs. Caution: Every stand must be just under the motherboard’s holes or else it will touch the motherboard components and it will create a short. You don’t want to do that.
 
 
 



Our PC case is ready to welcome our motherboard.
 
 






Unpack the motherboard from its package and leave it on the anti-static bag. You need first to install the I/O shield before installing the motherboard.
 






 This is the I/O back panel.






Take the I/O back plate and install it on the back as the following picture shows.

 
 
 

Be sure that you placed it correctly and not upside-down. Usually the mouse and keyboard serial ports are on top.



Now is the motherboard’s turn.

 
 
Lift the motherboard carefully and handle it from its sides. Point it’s I/O connectors and ports to the I/O shield and push it so the connectors fit in the holes of the I/O plate. Then leave the motherboard to lay on the stands.
 
 
 



If the motherboard’s holes are not perfectly aligned with the stands then align them as the illustration above.







Now the motherboard is in place and ready to be secured in the pc case.







Tighten the screws and you motherboard will be secured.
 
 

 
We finished installing a motherboard in a pc case. Easy, don’t you think?
 



We repeat again that do not rush installing the motherboard before installing the CPU. There is a big chance that you will have to uninstall the motherboard to install the CPU and re-install it again.
 

This concludes the motherboard installation guide. Let’s summarize how to install a motherboard.

 • Remove any static electricity from your hands
Screw the stands in the PC case to the correct holes
Install the I/O back plate
Align motherboard’s I/O back connectors and ports with the I/O back plate.
Align motherboard holes with the stands and secure it with the screws.

Posted by Gurneet Singh on 22:56 0 comments

About Operating Systems


 Computer Operating System (OS). What is an Operating System?




"Operating system not found”. What is a computer operating system? You may wonder… Just after you built your computer and powered it on. Computers need of an operating system in order to work. When you build a custom computer you have to select and buy also an OS. Except that you already own one from a previous purchase or it just happened to have an OS installation CD or DVD in your home.

When you buy your computer part by part from different sellers, obviously you don’t have the possibility to get your computer already built and with a fresh installation of an OS. These are tasks that you have to perform and I will show you how. But let’s see first what an operating system is and what it does.
The computer operating system is installed in the hard drive. The operating system’s location is used every time the computer boots up and loads the necessary OS files to memory. When loading is completed the computer is ready for use.


What an Operating System Does ?

A computer operating system is just a program. It is not so simple though. The operating system is responsible to use the hardware components of the computer so to create a working environment for the user. This working environment is a user interface where the user can give tasks to the computer. These tasks may be specific instructions, programs, services and more.
To put it simpler the working environment of the computer OS is what you see when you power on your PC after the OS loading screen. If your OS is-Windows then the working environment is the desktop screen.
The OS manages the computer resources and shares them to the running tasks and services. When the computer operating system starts it actually loads hundreds of tasks and services. These are loaded to the computer memory and stay there as long as the OS is running. All these tasks are used for supporting the user intentions.
An OS is considered good when it can manage the computer resources efficiently. Windows XP is considered the best operating system from Microsoft up to now because of its efficient memory management. From the other hand Windows Vista was a total failure from the same perspective. That’s why Windows 7 came up so early after Vista. Windows 7 have a decent memory management and they are very promising.
Computer OS is a ground for running other programs. Every program is designed to run to a specific OS or more computer operating systems of the same company though. For example some programs may be compatible with some Windows series but not compatible with MAC OS or Linux operating systems.
The user’s running programs cooperate with the operating system. They ask for resources and the OS manages to cover their demand.
If you run too many programs then the available computer resources decrease dramatically and the computer will be sluggish, even crash in some cases. As the computer OS try to serve all the programs it runs out of resources (e.g. memory) being unable to support all these tasks closing them violently.
The computer OS try also to prevent unstable situations by deciding to perform specific tasks without the user’s consent in some cases. It even crashes the whole system with a Blue Screen of Death to prevent hardware damage.
Let’s see now some popular operating systems:


Microsoft Operating Systems

Microsoft is the most popular developer of computer operating systems. It has the greater share of the pie as their operating systems are greatly promoted throughout the world. This fact combined with their user-friendliness makes them the first choice of every new user.
Microsoft has many times criticized for adopting monopoly tactics and releasing incomplete operating systems that are vulnerable and unstable. This is the reason of the daily release of security patches, updates and service packs. Some of the most popular Microsoft operating systems are listed below:

•        Ms-DOS
•        Windows 95
•        Windows 98
•        Windows XP
•        Windows 2000
•        Windows Vista
•        Windows 7



Linux Operating Systems


Linux is an open source operating system that it was developed by Linus Torvalds and developers from all over the world. It began as a hobby but now it is a very strong opponent to the commercial companies. Linux gains popularity every year and as a result hundreds of Linux editions have come out from many developers.
Although, Linux distributions are not so user-friendly as Windows or MAC, they are free. This is because Linux is an open source operating system. Another advantage of an open source OS is that every program that is designed for this computer OS is also free. Some popular Linux distributions for the mainstream users are the following:
•        Debian GNU/Linux
•        Gentoo Linux
•        Mandriva
•        SUSE Linux
•        Fedora
•        Ubuntu Linux


Apple or MAC Operating Systems

Apple wanted to differentiate from Microsoft’s approach to computer OS and it was the first company that designed a fully graphical interface for their computer operating systems. When MS-DOS had just a command line waiting the user to start writing, the MAC operating system offered only a graphical environment without a command line support. Apple designed two families of MAC operating systems, the MAC OS and the MAC OS X.
Apple’s operating systems are characterized from the easiness of use and the beautiful visuals. They offer a very nice and easy to use environment. Some versions of MAC OS X are listed below:
•             10  “Cheetah”
•             10.1 “Puma”
•             10.2 “Jaguar”
•             10.3 “Panther”
•             10.4 “Tiger”
•             10.5 “Leopard”
•             10.6 “Snow Leopard”
We saw what a computer operating system is; we described what it does and how it works and we saw some of the most popular computer operating systems. Now that you know some basics it is now time to install your operating system.

Posted by Gurneet Singh on 12:54 0 comments

Computer Building Guide


Computer Building Guide

In this computer building guide we will talk about all the steps that are required for building your own computer from scratch. These steps cover everything you need to do starting from opening the hardware parts boxes up to powering up the computer.

Details on how to install the hardware parts can be found at the relevant pages and not here. In this guide we are going to describe only what you have to do. Follow any links that you can find in this article if you want for more how-to install guides or check the relevant menu on the left.

After an extensive market research you bought the best hardware components for the money and few minutes ago the courier delivered you several boxes that contain all these hardware. 

So let’s see what you need to do first before you start building your own computer.
It is important to follow the steps of the computer building guide with this particular order.

1.  Check the Boxes   

First thing to do is to open all the boxes and check that everything is fine. This means that the box is sealed, hardware is placed in sealed bags and supporting material is in place. If you have any concerns about this then call immediately the shop and ask for explanations. As long as you are sure that everything is as it should be you can continue with the computer building guide.

2.  Install the CPU to the Motherboard

Ok now you can begin building your own computer. First, install the CPU onto the motherboard. Apply thermal compound on the top surface of the CPU and then place it carefully into the motherboard’s socket. Install the CPU cooler and you are done with this step.

3.   Install the Motherboard’s back plate I/O to the PC case

Inside the motherboard’s box you will find the rear panel I/O of the motherboard. This looks like a thin metal plate with many holes of different shapes. These holes correspond actually to the layout of the motherboard that is nothing more of a series of ports and connectors.

Rear Plate I/O

Install this to your PC case. If there is another rear I/O plate in your case, just replace it with your motherboard’s one. Also, if you have bought any extra fans this is the right moment to install them.
4.   Install your Motherboard in the PC case

Now it is time to install your motherboard in your PC case. Screw the bolts in your PC case where the motherboard will be installed and then align the motherboard bolt holes. Check also that the layout of the motherboard fits perfectly the rear back plate and that the connectors have passed to the back of the PC case. Secure the motherboard in the PC case with the bolts.

5.   Install Computer Memory (RAM)

Take the RAM modules and install them in the memory bank. Be sure to check that you install them correctly. Notice the notch that the RAM module has and align it with the notch of the memory slot. Apply pressure to the module until it locks.

6.   Install Internal Storage Devices (HDD)

Mount hard drives to the 3.5″ bays and optical devices to the 5.25″ bays and connect them to the motherboard. From now on you must do a good wire management or else in the end your computer will look like a mess with all these cables.

7.   Install Graphics card and PCI devices

Last hardware components that you will install will be the video card in the PCI express x16 slot and then any PCI devices you may have bought such as a sound card or a TV tuner card or any other PCI device.

8.   Install Computer Power Supply and Connect the Components

To install the computer PSU. The location of the PSU is standard and you will understand immediately where it must be installed. Align the PSU with the PC case bolt holes and screw the bolts to secure the computer power supply unit. After that connect all the internal hardware components that require power supply.

9.   Close the PC case and connect the Computer

The last step of the computer building guide is to close the PC case and connect the computer with all the external and peripheral devices. Connect them to the rear plate I/O and plug your computer to the electricity socket. Your new computer is ready to serve.

This concludes the computer building guide. As you can see it is a very easy and straight-forward process. Besides it is also fun to build a PC. For more information on how to install hardware parts check also the relevant guides.

Posted by Gurneet Singh on 13:57 0 comments

Overview of the Basic Computer Parts


Overview of the Basic Computer Parts

. The parts of a computer that we are going to discuss are the essential hardware parts that a computer needs to operate. These components are mostly internal and external in the case of the necessary peripherals.
As we already saw in the previous post the basic computer parts are the following:
•           Motherboard
•           CPU
•           Main Computer Memory (RAM)
•           Video Card or Graphics Card
•           Storage Devices (Hard Disk Drive & Optical Drive)
•           Computer Power Supply Unit (PSU)
•           Computer Display or Monitor
•           Keyboard & Mouse
You need the above computer parts so to have an operational computer. You cannot skip anything except the video card only in case that your motherboard-CPU combo has integrated graphics hardware (An on-board graphics card integrated to motherboard). This means that a graphics card is present so there is no need to buy an extra card.
Let’s see now the importance and the role of the basic computer parts. List of computer parts from the higher to the lower importance.

1. Computer Power Supply Unit

Importance

Yes you see right. The computer power supply unit is the most important of the basic computer parts. Faulty computer Power Supply Unit can cause very nasty problems that are not easily to detect. The great majority of people ignores the importance of the quality of the power supply and just buys the cheapest Power Supply Unit that cover their computer’s watt needs.
The quality of the Power Supply Unit is something that you must absolutely pay attention to it. And have in mind that quality must be paid. It is better to cut from other parts of the computer than to buy a cheaper and lower quality Power Supply Unit. Choose the manufacturer and model of the Power Supply Unit wisely after an extensive market research. You can find nearly for every Power Supply Unit out there a website that has already tested it. Check it out before buying it. Something last: You buy Power Supply Unit last. Check here why.

Role

The computer power supply is responsible to power up your computer and its parts.  The computer parts, basic or not, may be internal or external. Some external elements have a separate power supply feed like some external hard disk drives and they do not use the computer’s power supply. Everything else that does not have a separate electric feed is powered by the Computer Power Supply Unit..

The Power Supply Unit transforms the AC to DC providing also different voltage lines. These lines are combined to Power Supply Unit’s connectors. Quality Power Supply Unit have minimal fluctuations in these voltage lines promoting the stability of the system under heavy load or overclocking. For more information about the Power Supply Unit please follow this link.
2. Motherboard

Importance

From all the basic computer parts the second more important is the Motherboard (mobo). Motherboard functions, quality and support determine the role of your computer. According to your motherboard you buy all the other components. The type of the motherboard is determined according to several factors such as the technology that it uses, its features, the CPU and Memory support, its expand-ability  connectivity and more. Check on the motherboard diagrams for more about the motherboard and how its parts work. Also here is a guide on how to install a motherboard.

Role

The motherboard’s role on the computer is to offer a “body” where the rest basic computer parts will connect. All the internal components fit onto the motherboard or connect to it through wires. The motherboard provides at the back an I/O panel where you connect peripheral and external devices like keyboard, mouse, speakers, USB devices, microphone, display monitor and more.

3. Computer Memory – RAM

Importance

Computer memory is the third of the most important basic computer parts. And this is because computer memory is a very sensitive hardware part. Be sure to buy computer memory of high quality by a trusted RAM manufacturer.  Usually, a faulty computer memory crashes the whole system losing all of your work. Another very important issue before buying computer RAM is to check the compatibility between the RAM modules and your motherboard.

Role

The Random Access Memory role in the computer is to store temporarily data for the CPU to process. Because the communication between CPU and RAM is many times faster than between CPU and Hard Drive, the data is loaded to the RAM and then is being accessed from the central processor.

The desktop computer memory plays an important role to the performance of the computer. The more RAM the computer has the more data can store in it and the faster the processing will be. Of course RAM modules can be differentiating to their speed, technology, capacity, timings and more. There are many desktop computer memory types. You can read more about computer memory types by following this link.

4. Central Processor

Importance

Well, if you plan not to play video games then the fourth most important of the parts of a computer is the central processor. There are only two major companies that manufacture computer processors for the home desktop computers. These manufacturers are Intel and AMD. They both manufacture quality products. So quality does not apply here.
The importance of the processor though relies on the intended use of the computer. For example, if you need to do audio or video editing then you need a multi-core, powerful processor. If you just want to run office applications, a simple dual-core processor will do the job. You buy computer processor always according to your needs.

Role

The role of the CPU in the computer is to process data. Every running program is being processed by the CPU. So actually the result of this process is what you actually see on the computer display. The CPU is considered the brain of the computer.

5. Video Card

Importance

If you play games then video card is most important than the CPU. Gaming and graphics performance is mainly depended on the potential of the video card. It is not in the first triad though because the most important thing is to ensure computer stability, so it comes 4th in case that you intend to play games or to use graphics related professional programs.

Role

The graphics card is the computer component that your computer display connects to. It is responsible to draw what you see on the monitor. It has a processor that is called GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) and undertakes the processing of every video or graphics application.  The faster the video card is the smoother the video, game or application will be.

6. Hard Disk Drive

Importance

The importance of the hard disk comes last as it is just storage medium. In case that your hard disk capacity is low you can just add a new hard disk and expand the overall storage capacity of your computer. Though, hard disk can play an important role to performance. Solid state hard drives are newer technology hard disks that perform much faster than the common SATA disks. They are also a lot more expensive.

Faults on hard drive may be critical. You may lose important files if a hard disk drive fails. That’s why you must always have more than one hard drives in your computer.

Role

The role of the hard disk drive in the computer is to store data files. It is the main storage of your computer. It was also known as memory.

A hard disk is necessary because contains the installation directories and files of the operation system (Windows, Mac etc.) and the programs. The more space you have the more you can store. Also there are some techniques that we are going to see at a later time to increase performance or security if you have two or more hard drives. This is nothing else than implementing a RAID array. I am going to show you how to create a RAID array in a future article.

7. Peripherals: Keyboard, Mouse and Monitor

Importance

Peripherals are the least important basic computer parts because their functionality does not affect the stability or performance of the whole computer. For example if a mouse gets broken your computer will not be harmed or stop working. You just replace your mouse and everything returns back to normal. The same happens with the keyboard and display parts.
Their importance though is high because without these peripherals you cannot use the computer.

Role

The Role of these basic computer parts is obvious. The mouse and keyboard are for interacting with the computer. Both, especially the keyboard, consist of the interface between the computer and the human. The computer display presents the results of this communication between you and the computer.

In this article we discussed the importance and the role of the basic computer parts. This classification is only based according to my experience with the computers all these years. I have come across many troubles. In my opinion the first thing a computer must ensure is stability and then performance. Minimizing the possibility of the “blue screens of death” is essential for every computer whatever its purpose is.

Posted by Gurneet Singh on 18:41 2 comments

Components of Computer



Computer Components:

Computers are made of the following basic components:



Power Supply - The power supply comes with the case, but this component is mentioned separately since there are various types of power supplies. The one you should get depends on the requirements of your system. This will be discussed in more detail later.

Motherboard - This is where the core components of your computer reside which are listed below. Also the support cards for video, sound, networking and more are mounted into this board.



Microprocessor - This is the brain of your computer. It performs commands and instructions and controls the operation of the computer.


Memory - The RAM in your system is mounted on the motherboard. This is memory that must be powered on to retain its contents.


Drive controllers - The drive controllers control the interface of your system to your hard drives. The controllers let your hard drives work by controlling their operation. On most systems, they are included on the motherboard, however you may add additional controllers for faster or other types of drives.



Hard disk drive(s) - This is where your files are permanently stored on your computer. Also, normally, your operating system is installed here.





CD-ROM drive(s) - This is normally a read only drive where files are permanently stored. There are now read/write CD-ROM drives that use special software to allow users to read from and write to these drives.




Floppy drive(s) - A floppy is a small disk storage device that today typically has about 1.4 Megabytes of memory capacity.


Other possible file storage devices include DVD devices, Tape backup devices, and some others.

Monitor - This device which operates like a TV set lets the user see how the computer is responding to their commands.


Keyboard - This is where the user enters text commands into the computer.



Mouse - A point and click interface for entering commands which works well in graphical environments.




Posted by Gurneet Singh on 12:56 1 comments

Basics of Computer


What is a Computer  

A computer is a programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: it responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner and it can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).

Modern Computers Defined :-

Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery wires, transistors, and circuits is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software.

All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:

Memory :-

Memory enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs.

Mass storage device :-

Mass storage device allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.

Input device :-

Input device usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer.

Output device :- 

Output device a display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished.

Central processing unit (CPU) :- 

CPU is the heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions.

In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another.

Computer Classification, By Size and Power :-

Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap:

Personal computer :-

Personal computer is  a small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data.

Workstation :-

Workstation is  a powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor.

Minicomputer :-

Minicomputer is a multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously.

Mainframe:-

Mainframe is a powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.

Supercomputer :-

Supercomputer is  an extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

Posted by Gurneet Singh on 12:17 0 comments

Photo Gallery

Computer 






Processor




             



Hard-disk 



Add caption










Mother board



 



Power supply




Mouse

           








Loop-back Adapter






Nvidia Card



                     





Ram







Internal Components of System Board






Networking Devices 




Different types of Switch





Switch with labeling 




Router






Network Card





Networking  Switch




                    


































Posted by Gurneet Singh on 14:00 1 comments